On March 4th a trailer truck pulled out of UConn Avery Point with two containers and a winch totaling about 27,000 pounds of oceanographic gear, headed for Seattle, WA, mobilization site for NURTEC’s latest expedition – “Deepwater Exploration of Glacier Bay National Park” (GBNP) in Alaska. One container was the Center’s ROV control van and the other housed the Kraken2 ROV and tons of support gear, tools, spares etc. The mission is being led by Dr. Rhian Waller from the University of Maine and is sponsored by NOAA’s Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER).
The K2 ROV will be deployed at night off the contracted support vessel Norseman II to explore the deeper waters of the park, collect video, digital stills and select samples of deep water organisms for subsequent genetic and age data analyses. During the day SCUBA will be used to explore and sample the shallow waters of GBNP that are unique in that they support cold water corals that normally grow in much deeper water. This phenomenon is due to freshwater runoff that is laden with brown colored tannins that block the penetration of sunlight, creating conditions similar to much deeper water.
The NURTEC ROV team arrived in Seattle on March 10th and began to mobilize all of the gear onto the Norseman II, before setting sail north to Alaska. The four day transit along the spectacular Inside Passage provided additional time to tweak all systems for the upcoming two-weeks of challenging dive operations. The mission began with test dives on March 18th with the first full day of ROV operations taking place the following evening with a successful dive that included collecting many deep-water coral samples.
NOAA’s OER is providing detailed, day by day Mission Logs of the expedition on its Ocean Explorer website.
March 21, 2016 Report
The K2 ROV completed the third successful dive exploring the East Arm of Glacier Bay National Park. Deep water corals measuring 1-2 meters across were sighted on the dive. The team is now steaming towards the West Arm for a dive in the Johns Hopkins Inlet.
NURTEC conducted 26 tows using its ISIS2 towed camera system from July 1-10, 2015, continuing its partnership with NOAA Fisheries Northeast Fisheries Science Center and University of Maine to explore the Gulf of Maine for Deep Sea Corals (DSC’s). The ISIS2 camera sled was equipped with both down and forward-looking hi-def video cameras and a down-looking digital still camera. For 2015 NURTEC integrated two thrusters onto the sled to provide much improved and much needed maneuverability that allowed the system to be better positioned in the rugged topography and deal with the strong currents of the Gulf of Maine. The system was operated off the RV Connecticut, which again provided the perfect support ship for this type of operation with its dynamic positioning capabilities.
Cool Coral Cruise 2015
The starboard side of the ISIS2
The forward view of the ISIS2
The ISIS2 control van
Night time recovery of ISIS2
Hanging Primnoa coral garden on steep wall on Schoodic Ridge
Small haddock feeding in the coral garden
A rarely seen pom-pom anemone (Liponema brevicornis)
A dislodged Primnoa coral surrounded by plastic debris
Haddock swimming over sponges and anemones on Mt. Desert Rock
Dense sea pens (Pennatula) in fine grain sediment habitat
Rock outcrop on Lindenkohl Knoll exhibits trawl marks with the only fauna surviving in the crevice.
Dense pollack school on Lindenkohl Knoll
This was the third expedition, funded by NOAA’s Deep Sea Coral Research and Technology Program, to explore for DSC’s in the Gulf, with each year finding new areas that support these ecologically sensitive and vulnerable, slow-growing animals that were likely much more ubiquitous in the region. In addition, some sites from previous years were revisited to assess the condition of the corals from previous surveys. Three main areas were surveyed this year: Outer Schoodic Ridge, the Mount Desert Rock area and the Georges Basin region. The following provides some highlights from this expedition.
Several areas on Outer Schoodic Ridge did appear, based on coarse resolution bathymetry, to be similar to areas previously found to support dense coral communities. Nonetheless, they turned out to be steep sediment slopes with evidence of impacts from both mobile and fixed fishing gear (e.g., tracks on sonar, displaced cobbles and boulders). One site that was revisited from a previous cruise, with dense coral and sponges on both horizontal surfaces and steep vertical walls, had a tremendous abundance of haddock. Noteworthy is that pollock was the primary gadiform species in 2014 and silver hake in 2013. All appeared to search for and capture prey amongst the structure-forming fauna, including corals. While some of this activity is due to the attraction of prey and predators to the underwater vehicle, the variation in dominant fish species observed from year to year reflects variability in the presence of particular taxa. This suggests that DSC habitat can serve as the ecological stage for multiple players depending on current conditions.
Two spectacular coral walls were discovered in the Mount Desert Rock area on this cruise, with hanging gardens of red tree coral (Primnoa), fan coral (Paramuricea) and multiple species of sponge. A very rare pom pom anenome was observed enroute to one of the vertical walls. Noteworthy here were the dense patches of sea pens (Pennatula), including many smaller size classes (i.e., assumed younger age classes), encountered in fine-grained sediment habitats interspersed between rock ledges. This was perhaps the highest density of sea pens observed throughout this project.
Finally, no corals were observed at the base of the slope stretching from Georges Bank into Georges Basin. However, Lindenkohl Knoll, that forms a northern boundary to Georges Basin, did have sparse corals in multiple locations (mostly Paramuricea) along with evidence of extensive impacts from fishing. Steep vertical rock outcrops, like those in the northern Gulf that supported dense coral gardens, were nearly denuded of fauna and exhibited marks from fishing gear (extensive markings from ground-line components). Noteworthy is that such marks stretched from the base of one outcrop to over 6 m in vertical relief. In general, Paramuricea and associated epifauna were often small and virtually all occurred in physical refugia such as cracks and crevices of outcrops and along the sediment-rock interface of large cobbles and boulders. The one exception was an approximately 2 m deep by 4-5 m wide feature in a large outcrop with dense Paramuricea.
The results of this cruise, together with data collected during previous cruises, will provide the New England Fisheries Management Council and NOAA Fisheries important information for crafting a new Coral Amendment focused on conservation of these sensitive and vulnerable species.
In the summer of 2013, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) supported NURTEC to conduct an expedition to the northern Gulf of Maine to explore for the location and distribution of deep sea corals. A 14 day cruise off the RV Connecticut with the ISIS2 camera sled was conducted from 11-24 July 2013 and completed 40 camera tows in four areas (western Jordan Basin, Mount Desert Rock-Outer Schoodic Ridges, Blue Hill Bay, and off Monhegan Island). Deep sea corals were present at 15 stations, sea pens at 20 stations and sponge fauna at 29 stations (More info).
The value of this survey was the speed at which the ISIS2 could be deployed to maximize the number sites that could be visited to provide presence/absence information on the distribution of corals and other important invertebrates. The limitations of the ISIS2, however, were that since it had no thrusters to control its direction, it was a the mercy of the ship’s motion and the currents, not being able to stop and get close-up imagery of any of the organisms. Further, the system had no capability to physically sample any of the organisms for important genetic and taxonomic analyses. In July, 2014 NMFS supported a 15 day mission to return to the Gulf of Maine with the Kraken2 (K2) remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to further survey and sample the sites that supported deep sea corals, sea pens and sponges.
The expedition utilized the R/V Connecticutas a support ship. It is the ideal platform to support ROV operations due to its dynamic positioning system, low freeboard and ample deck space to support the K2 ROV system comprised of the ROV, a winch for its 4000 feet of tether, a hydraulic power unit to drive the winch, and a 20 foot control van where the ROV is controlled at the direction of scientists and pilots. Despite two days of unworkable weather the NURTEC team was able to conduct 21 dives, averaging 9.8 hours in the water per day working at an average depth of 204 meters (669 feet). The K2 collected over 100 hours of high definition video and 7273 high resolution digital still images from its two cameras. In addition, the K2 collected a significant number of deep sea corals, sponges and sea pens for analyses of populations genetics, reproductive histology, and for voucher specimens at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History. The genetics will provide important information on the relationship of these deep sea corals to other populations existing further offshore, while the morphological analyses will provide evidence of the dynamics of reproductive condition of these animals. Video will be used to assess habitat requirements of key species, variation in size structure of corals, and the functional role of coral and sponge taxa as fish habitat. This information, will provide NOAA and the New England Fishery Management Council with very important guidance for future management decisions on these vulnerable marine ecosystems.
The world’s last remaining sail-powered whaling ship, the Charles W. Morgan, conducted her 38th voyage this past summer traveling from Mystic, CT to the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS) as a symbolic journey to one of the world’s premier whale watching sites. This voyage captured the renaissance of the Morgan from a whale hunting ship to an emissary of ocean conservation. While in the sanctuary, researchers, historians, artists and authors on board the Morgan conducted research and outreach activities to highlight the sanctuary’s role in whale conservation and ocean research.
The Northeast Underwater Research, Technology and Education Center (NURTEC) was asked to work with partners from NOAA, SBNMS and the Mystic Seaport to establish a comprehensive ship to shore broadband wireless network to support telepresence broadcasts from the Morgan as she sailed in the Sanctuary in the Gulf of Maine. The concept of telepresence as envisioned for the Morgan’s voyage was not simply broadcasting a single camera feed, but to turn the Morgan into a mobile “news studio” that allowed multiple cameras onboard to focus on the business of sailing the ship, interviews with experts in maritime history and marine mammal biology onboard, and other onboard programming. The onboard studio was able to interact with historians, scientists and archaeologists across the globe (at other National Marine Sanctuaries for example) with interesting and associated content to offer.
NURTEC developed the capacity to conduct low-cost, broadband, telepresence broadcasts from ship to shore nine years ago in support of similar maritime heritage focused projects with the SBNMS. This capacity includes both ship-side and shore-side equipment and the know-how to design, install and operate this equipment to set up a ship to shore network with enough throughput to deliver compressed high definition video from ship to shore. In 2005 NURTEC and SBNMS conducted a “live dive” that featured live underwater video from the Center’s ROV as it explored the wreck of the steamship Portland that was then sent from the RV Connecticut over 20 miles back to shore to the Pilgrim Monument in Provincetown, MA, and from there onto the Web. The Center conducted a similar, but more complex telepresence activity with SBNMS in 2006 to highlight from the wreck of the twin schooners the Palmer and the Crary.
The public was able to follow the Morgan’s visit to the sanctuary on OceansLIVE (oceanslive.org) that broadcast three live shows daily from the vessel and other locations on July 11-13th. Each of the shows featured interviews and commentary with historians, scientists, authors and artists discussing the shift from whaling to watching in New England. The OceansLIVE website has archived the shows that are available for viewing at the oceanslive.org web site.
The wreck of the Lamartine, a 19th century schooner that hauled granite for construction of streets, sidewalks and buildings along the U.S. East Coast, has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the nation’s official list of cultural resources worthy of preservation. The wreck lies within NOAA’s Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary in Massachusetts Bay.
Built in Camden, Maine, the 79-foot, two-masted cargo schooner was launched in 1848 and enjoyed a 45-year career along the Eastern Seaboard. The Lamartine is considered by historians as a representative vessel of New England’s granite trade from that era.
While hauling granite sewer heads from Stonington, Maine, to New York City on May 17, 1893, the Lamartine encountered a storm off Cape Ann, Mass. Heavy seas caused the schooner’s cargo to shift, capsizing the vessel.
One crewmember drowned as the schooner settled beneath the waves, and the captain and mate were tossed into the ocean. Luckily, a fishing schooner returning to Gloucester, Mass., saw the Lamartine sink, and rescued them.
“Lamartine’s cargo of cut granite reveals fascinating details about how granite quarried in New England met the demands of a nation growing increasingly urban,” said Craig MacDonald, superintendent of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. “The shipwreck is a physical link to earlier generations who moved the stone and whose hands chiseled the granite blocks that built our great American cities.”
Scientists from NOAA and the University of Connecticut’s Northeast Underwater Research Technology and Education Center (NURTEC) documented the shipwreck with the university’s remotely operated vehicle during several research missions between 2004 and 2006. The fieldwork recorded the vessel’s features, including portions of its wooden hull, rigging and granite cargo. This information allowed sanctuary maritime archaeologists, with help from a local maritime historian, to identify the shipwreck and connect it with New England’s cultural landscape that is dotted with granite quarries on coastal headlands and islands.
NOAA and NURTEC scientists have collaboratively located and documented more than three dozen historic shipwrecks in the sanctuary using side scan sonar and an advanced suite of remotely operated and self-guided underwater vehicles. The Lamartine is the sanctuary’s sixth shipwreck site to be included on the National Register of Historic Places, administered by the U.S. Department of the Interior’s National Park Service.
The Lamartine’s location within Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary provides protection unavailable to shipwrecks in other federal waters off Massachusetts. Sanctuary regulations prohibit moving, removing or injuring any sanctuary historical resource, including artifacts and pieces from shipwrecks or other submerged archaeological sites. Anyone violating this regulation is subject to civil penalties.
Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary encompasses 842 square miles of ocean, stretching between Cape Ann and Cape Cod offshore of Massachusetts. Renowned for its biological diversity and remarkable productivity, the sanctuary is famous as a whale watching destination and supports a rich assortment of marine life, including marine mammals, seabirds, fishes and marine invertebrates. The sanctuary’s position astride the historic shipping routes and fishing grounds for Massachusetts’ oldest ports also makes it a repository for shipwrecks representing several hundred years of maritime transportation.
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